Dream Bikes – Fixie Inc Pure Blood

Strange but another favourite bike / slice of candy from this German company.

Fixie Inc Pure Blood

Blood. Sweat. Tears. Cyclocross is both martial and beautiful. It can destroy you and in the same moment build you up again. You die on the long straights and awake to a new life when the masses start to carry you up a climb. Feel the essence of power, technology and endurance and give everything you have. The Pure Blood is on your side.

  • Superlight custom drawn 4130 aircraft steel – double butted & heat treated
  • combined Fillet brazing and TIG welding, wishbone rear end
  • segmented DiscO straight disc fork
  • FIXIE Inc. Weenie CNC dropouts saves weight
  • Direct Postmount Standard: no adapters needed
  • forward moved bottlecage position offers room for shouldering
  • tapered seattube offers superior comfort

Fixie Inc. create a pretty select range of steel and titanium bikes of the road and fixed variety, almost to the point of being fashionably niche and they’re not afraid to be innovative or quirky, depending on your point of view, with belt-drives, Velcro mudguards and bike-polo mallets featuring in the mix, and the Pure Blood is their cyclo-cross offering. The Fixie boys from Germany have been making a disc specific cyclo-cross bike long before the UCI made it legal and long before it was the thing to do, and this burly little yellow offering is a development from their previous elegantly red and white Pure Blood that had been kicking around in the dirt for a few years.


Made from superlight custom drawn 4130 double-butted and heat-treated “Aircraft Steel” pipes joined together with a combination of fillet brazing and TIG welding, the actual provenance of the tubing isn’t revealed as Fixie Inc. say they like to mix and match the tubing according to it’s most appropriate use on the frame.

The seat-tube and slightly sloping top-tube are both tapered to offer “superior comfort”, gussets grace the down-tube to head-tube junction and extend from the bottom-bracket onto the chainstays to add strength without adding weight, and the sturdy looking three-piece fork matches the wishbone rear-end.

The single bottle-cage mount is high on the down tube for a short reach to refreshment and leave room in the frame triangle for bike shouldering. Mudguard or rack eyes are conspicuous by their absence on the fork or anywhere on the rear triangle which limits the versatility of the Pure Blood, no doubt disappointing the “I want a once specialist and task specific machine to be my tourer and commuter and racer all at the same time now” crowd, but probably please the racier types, although the discs will annoy the purists, even if the brake callipers are post-mounted, eliminating all sorts of aesthetically fussy adaptors.

The rear-dropouts have been changed from it’s ancestor’s interchangeable units that allowed the Pure Blood to be either used with gears or run as a singlespeed because apparently not many people at all bothered to switch things around, so in their place are Fixie Inc’s own design of minimal and lightweight dropout.

Cables all run underneath the down-tube to the bottom-bracket where they’re sheathed to be safe from the mud, and front and rear disc cables run through the fork leg and left-hand chainstay respectively, with the internal cable-runs being sleeved to make swapping cables less frustrating. According to the Fixies this keeps everything out the way and stops errant cable loops snagging on both bush and rider, a tidying concept echoed by the rear calliper mounted on the chainstay, inside the rear triangle out of harm’s way. The front mech cable stop behind the seat-tube has an adjuster threaded into it to help with tweaking and both brake cables have in-line cable-adjusters by the stem so brakes can be kept tight on the move, all of which is very handy for a bike that’s supposed to get worn down by the slop at regular intervals.

Finished in a striking Acid Yellow the frame is sprinkled with references to Flanders, the gritty romantic heartland of cyclo-cross, the cranks, seatpost and saddle are all decorated with the lion rampant sable, as is the custom painted stem which is topped off with a beer bottle-top. You can’t have Belgium without beer.

One rung down from the top of the ladder SRAM Force takes care of the levers and gears via Jagwire custom cables to Avid BB7 road callipers that rub 160mm rotors. The Fixie Inc. CX chainset comes with 34/46 chainrings matched to a SRAM 11-28 cassette to create gearing that’s perfect for cross, and the cranks get longer as the frames get larger. Contact points are sorted by a Fixie Inc. race saddle with Kevlar edges that sits on top of a Fixie Inc. 27.2mm seatpost. A custom painted Fixie fillet brazed steel -10° stem holds onto a set of their oversize compact bars with a 70mm reach and 120mm drop that widen with frame size. The Fixie Inc. SL 32 hole disc hubs are laced to Alex R380 rims shod with Maxxis Larsen Mimo CX folding 700x35C tyres. An FSA Orbit X Aheadset is topped off by that beercap, and you get a chainstay wrap.

Price for the Pure Blood is a quite exclusive £2399 for the complete bike or £999 for the framekit (frame, fork, stem)

At 21lbs it was still a fun and sprightly machine, lively even, and although it can’t compete on the scales with a similarly priced flighty alloy or plastic race machine on the basis of this brief blast we’d be more than happy to suffer on it for an hour. 

Steel – different types in bike building

I was and still am slightly confused – there is a lot of steel out there, chromoly 4130, reynolds from 501 to 953, columbus thron to spirit – so I have googled, pilfered, condensed and accumulated some of the findings. I am no expert – for more info click on links. They follow after explanation roughly in order of strength, rarity and of course price

What is Steel?

Steel is an iron/carbon alloy that, with the addition of several elements such as chrome, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, etc., develops specific characteristics such as tenacity, fatigue resistance, workability and insensitivity to overheating.

Al vs Steel vs Ti

Why choose steel?

Steel ensures high performance at really low weights. The new alloys give a weight close to that of the aluminum alloys, together with a perfectly balancable elastic response, that is appreciated in particular on long rides. Unlike aluminum, steel is substantially stable over time, not requiring onerous maintenance cycles. If properly rust-treated, under normal conditions of use, it has almost unlimited fatigue resistance.
It allows frames to be built with excellent performances, rigid yet comfortable, suitable for any type of use.




Reynold’ latest innovation takes steel alloys into a new league. By utilising a specially developed martensitic-aging stainless steel alloy that can achieve tensile strength in excess of 2000 MPa, with a strength-to-weight ratio that can take on the best in the world. The resilient ride of steel, very high impact strength (similar to armour plating) and fatigue resistance combine to provide an extraordinary material that can now be used for tubing.

Reynolds work with directly with fabricators to provide recommended production techniques, so that the challenges inherent in using an extremely hard metal can be overcome.

Why it works:

UTS: 1750-2050 MPa

Columbus XCR

In cooperation with Trafiltubi ed Aubert & Duval, the new Columbus seamless tube set in stainless steel named XCr, is created. Starting form a specific request of the military industry, looking for a valid substitute for cadmium plated temper hardening steels which could no longer be produced because of their highly polluting manufacturing process, a new martensitic stainless steel with high content of Chromium and Molybdenum and Nickel as alloy elements which increase the mechanical and weldability characteristics, was created. The martensitic main structure contains traces of austenite that reduces the possibility of crack formation especially during the welding process.
The great weldability properties of the new XCr stainless steel, together with its high fatigue resistance and its extraordinary geometrical stability at high temperatures, make this material the natural element for welded structures, such as bicycle frames. Thanks to the high stiffness/weight and UTS/weight ratios (better than titanium and aluminium alloys) together with the elevated characteristics of corrosion resistance, it is possible to manufacture triple butted tubes to build extremely light and indestructible frames.

Why it works:

Mechanical characteristics  UTS = 1250-1350 MPa.

NOTE: It’s the most expensive steel tubeset in the world, but it’s also the only seamless stainless steel tubeset available; Reynolds’ 953 is a welded tube.



Reynolds 853


The benefits of air-hardening steels are particularly noticeable in the weld area where, unlike conventional steel alloys, strength can actually increase after cooling in air immediately after welding. 853 is heat-treated to give high strength and damage resistance, and the steel properties allow thin walls to be used, so that lower weight but fatigue-resistant structures can be made.

Why it works:

UTS: 1250-1400 MPa, density 7.78 gm/cc
Favourite Quote – a high end Reynolds 853 with SRAM red and/or dura ace for the person with money who wants a non carbon racing bike option 


NOTE The main advantage of Reynolds 853 is its ability to air harden after joining, a characteristic not shown by other chrome molybdenum / manganese molybdenum materials presently on the market. When building frames using either TIG welding or high temperature brazing, above 1600 degrees, the joints increase in strength as the frame cools to room temperature.

 LUG CONSTRUCTION IS THE PREFERRED METHOD OF JOINING 853. It allows a much larger area to be heated than tig welding which concentrates the heat to a very small area at the weld. This completely goes against the “AIR HARDENING” building philosophy of the material and adds nothing to the strength of the joint. It is however a much cheaper joining method, requiring less time and skill to perform.

Due to the superior mechanical properties of 853 tubing, there are several benefits which will translate directly to the cyclist. The wall thickness of 853 has been reduced to 0.4 mm, a full 0.1 mm thinner than Reynolds other top of the line 753 tubing. This translates into a frame weight of under 3 pounds 5 ounces for a 56 cm frame. The final significant advantage is the increased stiffness of the frame and its ability to transmit all of the cyclist power into forward motion.

Reynolds 753 – MANGANESE-MOLY heat-treated steel:

The 753 tubeset was the first heat-treated tubeset in the race bicycle industry, based on the same alloy as 531. Used mainly in lugged and fillet-brazed framesets, Reynolds implemented a Certfication procedure for builders who wished to use the tubing, as it helped builders understand the requirement to avoid overheating the thin wall tubes. Most builders used silver-brazing for the fabrication of frames, due to the low melting point, so that 753 tubing was not annealed inadvertantly. All 753 tubes are now available in the same dimensions within the Reynolds 725 brand tubing.

753 is now only available to special order and subject to a high minimum quantity due to raw material constraints.

Why it works:

UTS: 1100-1340 MPa
Favourite Quote –   “your back just doesn’t get sore on this bike”

NOTE This was the benchmark by which all high performance bicycle frames have been judged for the last 20 years. 753 is among the strongest tubes currently available for the manufacture of high performance, light weight, ultra responsive road frames. This tubing uniquely combines terrific power transmission ability, lively ride, responsiveness and a high degree of comfort, while producing some of the lightest frames available.

Unfortunately 753 frames will never be seen in great numbers. Frame builders having access to this material is closely controlled.  Builders must be certified as to their proficiency in low temperature silver brazing 753 by Reynolds. Only after having passed a structural test on their work will they be certified and sold these tubesets. Another drawback is the cost of silver brazing material as compared to that of brass, approximately $150.00 per pound compared to $9.00. Having to keep the area to be joined at a maximum of  1200 degrees, tig welders are immediately ruled out, along with their ability to mass produce 753 frames. It is primarily for these reasons that 753 frames are not offered by the bicycle giants. Highly skilled labor and time consuming hand work are not the direction large companies wish to move in.


Using an industry standard alloy with mechanical properties similar to our famous 753 brand, Reynolds mandrel butt and heat-treat this alloy so that thinner walls can be used compared to non-heat-treated steels. 725 can be TIG welded and used within our “Designer Select” combinations including 853 and 631 tubes.

Why it works:

UTS: 1080-1280 MPa

Based on a 0.3% carbon steel alloy which has been heat-treated and back-tempered for increased ductility. The chromium content promotes hardenability and resistance to oxidation. The molybdenum works in conjunction with the chrome to stabilize the alloy and maintain strength after heat-treatment and in use.

Columbus Spirit – Heat treated

NIOBIUM is a special steel with manganese, chrome, nickel, molybdenum and niobium. Columbus’s special chemical composition, the combined effect of strengthening for precipitation and reducing the alloy grain size are incredibly enhanced compared to standard steels. Niobium proves more effective than Vanadium as an alloy-strengthening agent. After specific processes of progressive drawing and forming, NIOBIUM undergoes a special heat treatment that gives the steel its final characteristics. It is a steel designed to provide superior mechanical characteristics and higher resistance to environmental effects than conventional carbon steels. A serious choice for a competition or top-of-the-line frame, where lightweight and reliability are essential.

Why it works:

UTS = 1050 ÷ 1250 MPa
Favourite Quotes – “Spirit” cromoly from Columbus. Well at least that’s what my Pegoretti is made from and I think it rides the best of my steel bikes. I’m fully aware it’s not just the tubing though. 


Columbus Life

NIOBIUM is a special steel with manganese,chrome,nickel,molybdenum and niobium.Columbus’s special chemical composition,the combined effect of strengthening for precipitation and reducing the alloy grain size are incredibly enhanced compared to standard steels.

Why it works:
UTS: 1000-1150 MPa

An all-purpose, high performance tubeset, manufactured in Cyclex steel, a top quality chrome molybdenum steel which has been cold worked to increase its strength.
These tubes in this set have short butts and are super finished to remove any surface defects. A wide range of tube diameters and shapes allow us to build frames to the customer’s exact requirements.
Why it works:
UTS: 830-965 MPa

Progetto Zona: custom, competitive road, and MTB frames

  • Nivacrom for Zona: Nivacrom is patented by Columbus. This is a steel alloy in which vanadium and niobium – precipitating in the metal matrix – block the grain growth during the elevated overheating of the welding containing the decline in the mechanical characteristics even at temperatures above 1000°C. The material developed for the Zona series, is subjected to a series of operations and treatments that, after drawing, homogenize the mechanical characteristics of the tube, making them uniform along the Iongitudinal axis. As a result, the fatigue behaviour is excellent.

Reynolds 631


Utilising the same chemistry as 853, this product is cold-worked and also has the advantages of air-hardening after welding. The alloy is a development on our famous 531 range with 10% higher strength. For cycling use, this provides tough, durable and comfortable frames particularly suitable for long distance riding, MTB and BMX . It has recently become available for touring and race fork blades.

In most applications, it should not be necessary to stress-relieve the weld zone.

Why it works:

UTS: 800-900 MPa
Favourite Quote – Reynolds 631 with Shimano 105 and a wider tire option for a person with a $1,000 to $1200 limit and who wants more of a real century bike in steel 

NOTE As 853 in composition but tube strength results from the extensive cold-working of the seamless billet without a final heat-treatment. The TIG welded part of the tube still benefits from the air-hardening feature that results in a fine grain structure within the heat-affected zone.

Reynolds 631 Air Hardened tubing is a tubeset based on their 853 Air Hardened technology. This tubeset has replaced 531 as the basic material used to construct Bob Jackson frames. The primary difference between 853 and 631 is the lack of heat treating applied to the an 853 tubeset, thus producing 631 tubing.  Tig welding is possible, however to bring 631 to its optimal strength level, brazing and the much larger heated area produced can greatly increase the finished joints ultimate strength.



Columbus Thron

An all-purpose, high performance tubeset. The formation of carbides prevents the grain enlargement, so the steel maintains it’s properties during brazing and welding, and even in the cold malleable raw state it features excellent mechanical characteristics.

Why it works:

UTS: 800 MPa


With similar properties to our original 531 brand alloy. For cycling, these are mandrel butted for accurate profiles, and available in a wide range of shapes. Weight savings from butting provide competitively priced, light framesets. The Reynolds “520” range uses the same alloy, made under license for us in Taiwan and subject to the same quality standards.

Why it works:

UTS: 700-900 MPa

The same 0.30% carbon steel chemistry as the 725 range but without the heat-treatment process. The strength and ductility can be varied by cold-working and normalizing if required. Reynolds 525 non heat treated chrome moly has been in Reynolds inventory of bicycle tubes for many years. Since 1998 it has been reconfigured and up graded to a strength level very similar to that of Reynolds legendary 531 tubing. The primary reason for it existence is its ability to be tig welded, thus producing lower cost and lower quality frames. It has no advantage over 531 except for this singular feature.



Reynolds 520 – CHROME-MOLY cold-worked steel:

With similar properties to our original 531 brand alloy. For cycling, these are mandrel butted for accurate profiles, and available in a wide range of shapes. Weight savings from butting provide competitively priced, light framesets. The Reynolds “520” range uses the same alloy, made under license for us in Taiwan and subject to the same quality standards.

Why it works:

UTS: 700-900 MPa

The same 0.30% carbon steel chemistry as our 725 range but without the heat-treatment process. The strength and ductility can be varied by cold-working and normalizing if required.

Reynolds 531 – MANGANESE-MOLY cold-worked steel:

In its 110th year, Reynolds re-launched a limited edition set of 531 tubes for brazed bike frame use. A long-running product and used in many Tour De France wins, 531 was first used in the “Aeronautics” industry from 1935

 Favourite Quote – Reynolds 531 double butted,because of it’s long history,used on many of the finest vintage bikes ever made.

531, 531c, 531OS No longer produced by Reynolds, due to its inability to be tig welded.



 Reynolds broken down - 
Reynolds 953 – maraging stainless steel
Reynolds 853 – heat-treated air-hardening steel
Reynolds 725 – heat-treated Chrome-molybdenum steel
Reynolds 631 – cold-drawn air-hardening steel
Reynolds 525 - cold-drawn chrome-molybdenum steel
some older columbus steel
columbus stickers


I thought not? Tell me what your favourite steel is.

my fav poster of steel

Glasgow scourge of cycling

Not only do we have to do with possibly some of the worst potholes this side of the 3rd world but then there is the case of the council putting in ‘amenities’ in order to check boxes and say they are supporting cycling in order to qualify for grants.

Help raise awareness by flagging good and bad practices amenities in your area ….. CycleStreets

Here is a case in point – there is a shortage of bike parking throughout the city, then when you do get cycle facilities like here at EAT deli in Clarkston – a good lamp post design easy to install then along comes the council and throws down some rubbish bins so that bikes no longer fit …..

space for teddy but no bikes

But not just councils here is a pic from the B&Q at parkhead where the bike racks are either obscured by grass or garden sheds in the summer .


Why the new Americas Cup will be awful

Yes it is pushing the boundaries and yes this will filter down to the masses ….. but sailing on big cats with wing masts is boring. The are too fast for tactical 20 tacks up a beat sailing. They are too big for their speed to be really seen. They are too far out to sea. When it goes wrong it goes bad …..

I would rather watch laser or finn class olympics or the Melges 24 worlds or the match racing circuit than any of this rubbish.

Here is Oracle making a small mistake and getting wiped out …..

What do you think? Let me know what would make Americas Cup exciting for you?

Bruno again – fancy meeting you here

I quite like this tiny bike by Bruno, a Japanese based cycle company. It’s not a folding bicycle, but a travel companion when hitting the road by plane or train and, at your destination, want to go faster than the average folding cycles. You can ‘compress’ the bike to 100 x 56 cm, the only thing you’ll need is a proper bag. Let’s ask Guu-Watanabe to make one…


Dream Bike by the name of Bruno

The brand Bruno has its roots in Switzerland but is now very much a Japanese operation. Bruno bikes are styled perfectly & combined with great parts and good frames. They also ride like a dream!

The 700c City Tourer is suited for long rides, commutes & as a town bike. It is also perfectly suited for carrying loads. Front & rear racks can easily be mounted.

– Shimano group
Cork Tape
– Tan Tyres
– Easy to mount front & rear rack
– Shimano group
– Classic quill stem & bell

– 700c Wheels
– Cross brakes & road style levers
– 8 Speed
– Reynolds 520 tubing

Bruno Bike Website

Easter Monday potter on the bikes

A lovely morning so loaded up the small Islabike and headed west to the parks and the canal.

heading west

Bella was on the back of the Yuba Mundo with her little bike strapped to the side – a few roads to go on and not yet safe enough for an unskilled 4 year old

over the shoulder shot

then to the west where we stopped for a bite to eat … before heading to Kelvingrove park where the girls cycled and tired themselves out.

crazy lunchtime

So on the way back it was a bit of this

bodged up bike carrier

followed by this

the ride home

Dream Bikes – Felch-tastic fixie – the Fixie Inc Peacemaker

•world’s first Gates Carbondrive fixed/free Flipflop belt drive bike
•newly developed JigSaw Coupler system
•fixed fitting now possible without special tools
•revised geometry
•revised SL stainless steel dropouts

  • £1149

As a pioneer in this area FIXIE Inc. offer the Peacemaker exclusively with the Gates Carbon drive belt drive. A hugely extended lifespan with zero maintenance, lower weight and a quieter drivetrain – these numerous advantages give a city bike such as the Peacemaker an even higher performance.

'that' belt drive

Many new developments were required to realize this project: a new JigSaw fastening segment was developed in order to allow the belt to be inserted into the frame rear triangle without bending open the chainstay. With its special inner form the JigSaw can still withstand bending and torsion forces. The segment was consciously kept away from the main flow of forces – dropout-chainstay-bottom bracket, so as to not compromise these areas. In addition a new rear cog profile has been designed in conjunction with Gates Germany / Nicolai which allows fixed- and freewheel cogs and maintains an identical belt line in both modes. Using a new mounting standard, fitting a fixed rear cog no longer requires special tools. This increases the user-friendliness dramatically and reduces the risk of incorrect fitting. As the belt drive is wider than a chain the 135mm rear spacing is retained giving maximum rear wheel strength. The existing stainless steel dropouts have been re-engineered and thanks to new cut outs look even sleeker than before.

Now I am trying to think of things I don’t like about this bike – well nothing – there is nothing not to like, I like it as much as Gertrude ….

Portrait with Gertrude ... well maybe not

Others think it is nice to this from Road.cc

So what’s all the fuss about? ell Fixie Inc really believe that belt drive is the way forward for fixed gear riding – in 2008 they showed us their prototype fixed gear belt drive and the Peacemaker – their range topping belt drive bike – is the result.

Amongst the problems they’ve had to overcome to get to here was the matter of how you split the frame to get the belt out should you need to change it? Holger and Recep at Fixie Inc have come up with a neat way of splitting the frame without adding weight or compromising strength, by moving the splitting point further up the seat stay – where other manufacturers such as Trek on their District have chose to split the frame at the dropout. 

However if the belt drive performs as it should you really won’t need to be splitting that frame very often, the only reason apart from the belt wearing out – which it will of course… eventually;  or it breaking, which we haven’t heard of happening (James Bowthorpe rode his Santos using the same Gates Belt Drive around the world with no serious problems) is if you want to change the pulley to either raise or lower the gearing. As is, our Peacemaker is equipped with the equivalent of a 75in gear – good for fast riding in flat cities – possibly more of a challenge in not flat Bath. We’ll see.

As you’d expect from a bike designed by two engineers a lot of thought has gone in to the technical aspects of the Peacemaker’s drivetrain and, particularly that Kickflip hub, which the Fixie boys developed in association with Gates Germany. This they are confident is the world’s first flip flop hub for the Gates belt – and we haven’t heard anyone contradict them so we’re sure they are right. Like their solution to splitting the frame when it comes to switching from fixed to free or vice versa it is an elegantly simple procedure. To run the freewheel you simply undo the six bolts on the fixed cog side, extract the wheel, slip a spacer on the freewheel side, turn the wheel round, put it back on the bike and do the bolts up again. Simple and no need to split the frame either.

But the Peacemaker isn’t just about function – they place a lot of importance on form too at Fixie so there are lots of nice details to catch the eye, that pearlescent white paint job for a start – although it’s a bugger to photograph… especially on a phone (we’ll take some shots using an actual camera too). Aside from the nice paint those handlebars caught our eye; echoes of their car scratcher bars on those ends – and if you want to run the bike without a back brake a similar ‘end’ comes with the bike to fix to the brake bridge. We also liked the grooves machined in to the bars so that the brake lever bands recess into the bar rather than standing proud. Nice.

Design Classic: The Brompton Bike

Apart from micro-scooters, this is just about the only vehicle small enough to be a household object. The Brompton folding bicycle, invented by landscape designer Andrew Ritchie in 1975, is not just compact — it folds down to little more than the size of one of its small wheels — but also good-looking.

Anyone who has ever struggled to sling bikes on the back of the car for the summer holidays ought to consider this instead. It’s usually thought of as a commuter bike — you can take it in a bag on the Underground — but I reckon it has huge holiday potential as well. Think of it as a piece of luggage that can whizz you to the local boulangerie of a morning.

gold plated is not a standard b-spoke option

It comes in various configurations and weights, and costs from £650 to £1,820 (prior to luggage). B-SPOKE form HERE

The importance of proper bike tail lights

Cyclists often downplay the importance of bicycle tail lights in comparison to headlights. The headlights of a bicycle are required to be visible from at least 100 feet away while the red reflector positioned at the back of a bicycle merely has to meet very basic legal mandates. Perhaps the most puzzling piece of this aspect is that bicyclists are required to ride in the same direction as traffic, leaving the motorists passing a bicycle only able to see the red rear reflector positioned usually just beneath the seat. If a motorist is unable to see this red reflector, they may also not be able to see the bicycle which could result in severe bodily harm or even death to the cyclist.

The number of accidents reported from cycling and motorist activities, along with increased bicycle safety programs, have led to cyclists across the globe to trend more toward brighter and more obvious bicycle tail lights regardless of legal requirement.

Numerous reports and articles exist today that discuss the dangers associated with new cyclists taking to the roads without first educating themselves on proper safety protocols for sharing the road and maintaining safe cycling habits. Most state laws merely require reflectors, however, it is highly recommended for increased safety to purchase and maintain actual bicycle tail lights for increased visibility to motorists and other cyclists.

Cycling safety programs have increased awareness to a point that cyclists are often even pulled over for not having an actual bicycle tail light. Specific examples are present throughout the cycling community of cyclists being struck by vehicles for not having tail lights for visibility. Most cyclists injured during motorist and cyclist accidents have headlights, yet, lack bicycle tail lights.

Research suggests that almost 700 bicyclists were killed each year during accidents involving motorists and cyclists between the years of 2000-2005. Fortunately, this number has decreased slightly during the past few years in large part to increased safety awareness. However, without the proper cycling safety skills, this number could climb once more.

LED Rear Bicycle Lights

There are a few types of tail lights for a bike but now the most popular and common are LED rear lights. Note this: although it is the most popular it is not the best. LED lights are chosen mostly because of very long lifespan, because they are cheap and consumes less battery energy than other bulbs.

Usually LED lights come in two or 3 modes: flashing, steady or random. Research shows that flashing mode drives much more attention (3-5 times more) than steady mode. Flashy taillights are forbidden in some countries, probably because it irritates and partially distracts motorists attention. However it is allowed and recommended in mostly every country. Random pattern lights are not allowed in the UK as far I  remember (correct me if I am wrong) unless it is a second light alongside another steady or flashing rear light.

My lights

I use two cateyes when out on the road – one is at the top of the seatpost and I normally attach another either to a bag or to my shorts or belt. This gives a change in light and direction over the bike mounted on especially when doing some out of saddle cycling …. and anything that attract a motorist’s attention is good in my books. I also use a more powerful USE flash and flare on my Brompton which I am a big fan off – especially on darker roads.

A great cartoon by Yehuda Moon to finish off

How good is 5 a side footie as a workout

Played another game last night and I don’t think I can remember the last time I was so puffed out from exercise. I cycled there to warm up – that’s the first 15 min or the heart rate chart. Then warm up and then the game – an hour of hard exercise.

It’s all in the high aerobic / anaerobic level where there is basically attrition on the body – but exercise that allows you to develop sprint and muscular ability by wearing you down. The dips in HR are my 4 stints in goal – pretty defined by a marked drop…. The last section is the cycle home with bruised shins and tired limbs – even friendly games can be pretty brutal sometimes.

HRmax 180 training effort 4.6

Noticed when uploading the suunto T6 data into moves count that nearly half the exercise counts as maximal, with a training effort of 4.6

. In their literature they say ….

4. Highly improving Training Effect This workout highly improves your aerobic performance, if repeated 1 to 2 times per week. In order to achieve optimal development, it requires 2 to 3 recuperative workouts (with a Training Effect of 1–2) per week.
5. Over-reaching Training Effect This workout helps you greatly improve your aerobic performance, but only if followed by a sufficient recuperation period. Training at this level requires an extremely high level of exertion and should not be performed often.

So easy exercise for me if I get another chance for any before going overseas for work next week.

What exercise have you that was much harder than you thought?